Building Structures: Definition, Types, to Components

Before building a residential house or business building, it’s a good idea to know the ins and outs of the building starting from the image and type of building structure, requirements, elements to what components must be in it. Because in the development process, there must be careful planning to meet security, safety, and comfort standards in buildings.

In a building there must be a structure that supports it. A complete building certainly has various structures that complement it so that a perfect building is formed. Each component must have been considered by the architects. To know more about the structure of the building, the following will be explained.

Definition of Building Structure

What is a building structure? Clearly, the building structure can be interpreted as elements or parts that are the main points of the establishment of a building such as the roof, walls, foundation, and so on. This structure will later complement the structural elements of other buildings such as the interior of the house so as to form a beautiful and sturdy unit. However, building a building should not be done haphazardly. Moreover, for a high-rise building, it is very necessary to have a development plan with a good structure and based on the standards set in government regulations.

Type of Building Structure

In general, there are two types of building structures that are commonly known to the public, namely the upper structure and the lower structure. While some divide into three types, with the addition of a middle structure. Both are legitimate, because they have all the necessary structures in the building. However, what exactly are the upper and lower structures?

The superstructure is all components that are above the ground. The function of the superstructure is as a support for the building with an upward elongated shape such as frames, trusses, and beams. While the substructure is a component that is in direct contact with the ground surface. The existence of this component serves to maintain balance and bear the burden on it. In this section there must be a foundation and basement structure.

Building Structural Components

If you already know and understand the structure of the building, then we will study the components in each structure. These components are interrelated parts to form another element. The following components start from the upper structure and then the lower structure.

1. Column

Columns can be likened to a human skeleton. If there are parts that are damaged, it will affect the entire body’s resistance. The function of the column is very crucial as a direct load forwarder to the foundation. Columns protect the house from strong winds, loads in the building such as people and objects, and support the building so it doesn’t collapse easily. The strong column structure uses iron and concrete, where the combination of the two materials is resistant to pull and push.

2. Block

If the column is used in a vertical position up, then the beam is placed in a sleeping position. The beam is a horizontal reinforcement that functions as a floor holder and a fastener for the upper floor column.

3. Roof

The very top of this building must be there as a protector of its occupants. Making the roof usually adjusts to the area where you live. Making the roof must plan several things such as the area to be roofed, the desired shape and construction, and the covering layer. While in the roof area there is a roof truss and roof truss supports. This frame serves as a load-bearing of the covering material (roof). While the part used to support the roof truss is a wooden or steel beam.

4. Floor Plate

Floor slabs are commonly referred to as level floors which are not directly above the ground. Floor plates are usually composed of beams that rest on the columns of the building structure. Floor plate materials also vary from wood, concrete, and cement wood. Meanwhile, there are two floor plate systems, namely one system plate and two-way plate.

5. Stairs

Stairs are a link between one floor to another. Stairs usually consist of components in the form of plates, borders, and steps. Stairs also have several types, namely horizontally stretched stairs, spiral staircases, floating stairs, and wedged stairs that are stacked on the middle beam.

6. Foundation

The foundation is almost known to the general public. The part that directly rests with the ground becomes a support for the structure of the building above it. Foundations are indeed made to withstand earthquakes, wind pressure, and other metaphysical activities that can cause damage to buildings. The foundation itself is divided into three types, namely deep foundations, shallow foundations, and wells.

7. Soil Excavation

The excavation will later be connected directly to important parts of the ground, such as the former foundations of old buildings and tree roots. If in the excavation there are water lines, sewer pipes, electrical cables, telephones, then immediately report them to the authorities. The work on this part is usually handed over to the contractor because any damage that occurs in the excavation work is the contractor’s full responsibility.

8. Basement Structure

This component is usually used on limited land. It is very important to plan the load and excavation method to avoid problems that arise during construction such as subsidence.

That is an explanation of the building structure complete with types, drawings, requirements, elements to building structural components that are commonly used in the construction sector. If you don’t intend to build a house because you don’t want to bother, choosing sturdy and beautiful housing can be an alternative.

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